Neurosciences cognitives (NAMSCA)

Neuroscientifique (MSc) spécialisé en neurosciences cognitives avec une expérience dans l’intégration multisensorielle, l’embodiment, la philosophie de l’esprit, la conscience et les états modifiés de conscience

Bio

Gradué avec un master en Neurosciences Cognitives (MSc) en 2020 avec un focus expérimental sur la philosophie de l’esprit, l’embodiment, la recherche autour de la conscience ainsi que les états modifiés de conscience.

Après avoir plongé dans la thématique de la philosophie de l’esprit durant ma thèse de master ainsi que durant les neuf mois de stage au laboratoire sensori-moteur (Lausanne), j’ai dirigé mon attention et mes efforts dans la rédaction d’un projet de doctorat (PhD) nommé NAMSCA qui est l’abbréviation de : « les composantes neurophysiologiques des états modifiés de conscience et de la conscience de veille ». Ce projet particulier se focalise essentiellement sur deux thèmes généraux : la guérison à distance & la décorporation.

Cymatic
Image 1 – Cymatic

EN / Graduated as a Cognitive Neuroscientist (MSc) in 2020 with a focus on Philosophy of Mind, Embodiment, Consciousness Research and Modified States of Consciousness.

After a deepening into the philosophy of the mind during my master thesis and a nine-months internship in the Sensori-Motor Lab (Lausanne), I headed toward a PhD project that was named NAMSCA : Neurophysiological Aspects of Modified States of Consciousness and Awareness. This particular project encompasses two general topics which are : distant healing & disembodiment.)

Axe de recherche en Neurosciences Cognitives sur les phénomènes conscients & psychiques (PSI)

La conscience est un mystère déroutant dans le monde de la philosophie ainsi que pour les neuroscientifiques. Dans l’objectif de palier au manque actuel de compréhension entourant les phénomènes conscients et les états modifiés de conscience, des investigations scientifiques strictes doivent être conduites. En effet, les dynamiques fonctionnelles cérébrales à large échelle incluant les patterns de cohérence cérébrale corrèlent avec un haut degré de conscience (Demertzi et al., 2019). Ce résultat suggère que les phénomènes conscients ne sont pas restreints aux contraintes neuroanatomiques, mais dépendent plutôt des patterns électromagnétiques complexes à grande échelle (cerveau) qui semblent permettre le partage ainsi que l’intégration de l’information. Il est essentiel de compléter le paradigme scientifique actuel en évaluant l’implication des principes de cohérence/résonance dans les processus neuronaux mais aussi, entre les réseaux électromagnétiques cérébraux (topologie intra- et intercérébrale) comme base informationnelle des phénomènes (in)conscients. Premièrement, en investiguant le paradoxe « Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen » (EPR) dans le cerveau : un phénomène d’intrication quantique entre deux individus séparés (expérience de la cage de Faraday), la possibilité d’un phénomène psychophysique sous-jacent pourrait être révélé comme étant de la cohérence quantique entre les deux champs électromagnétiques (deux cerveaux).

Grâce au projet NAMSCA qui sera présenté (en anglais) en dessous, un phénomène de synchronisation neuronale pourrait être révélé grâce aux indices topologiques intercérébraux tels que : la cohérence partiellement dirigé (CPD) et la valeur de synchronisation de phase (VSP) (Santamaria et al., 2020) mais encore, les potentiels transférés (Grinberg‐Zylberbaum et al., 1994). En second lieu, un protocole rTMS d’inhibition/excitation couplé d’un EEG sera utile afin de stimuler les deux jonctions temporopariétales dans le but d’induire des phénomènes d’autoscopie ou de décorporation. L’hypothèse sous-jacente étant la « désynchronisation cérébrale » possiblement déclenchée par l’inhibition ou la stimulation (disruption) simultanée des deux hémisphères cérébraux ce qui rejoint en partie les approches théoriques alternatives des expériences de mort imminente qui proposent que la conscience est, non pas finie, mais étendue après la mort du corps physique et du cerveau.

La visée finale d’une telle approche, au-delà des résultats strictement expérimentaux et statistiques, est psychophysique et théorique en y incluant la vision holonomique/holographique de la conscience proposé par l’éminent chercheur en neurosciences Docteur Karl Pribram.

The NAMSCA Project

Introduction

Consciousness is a puzzling mystery in the philosophical world and for cognitive neuroscientists. Large-scale brain complex dynamics including coherence patterns sustain a higher degree of consciousness (Demertzi et al., 2019), suggesting that conscious phenomena are not restricted to small-scale neuroanatomical constraints. However, there is still little evidence on complex/large scale electromagnetic patterns for information sharing and integration. The present project aims at filling this gap, conducting strict scientific investigations to overcome the current lack of definitive comprehension of conscious phenomena and modified states of consciousness.

Methods / Expected Results / Significance

My main goal is to complete the current state of the art by assessing the implication of coherence and resonance principles within synchronized neural processes and between brain’s electromagnetic networks (intra- and inter-brain network topology) as a possible core basis for information sharing in the brain and (in)conscious phenomena. First, by investigating the « Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen » (EPR) paradox in the brain [a quantum-like entanglement occurence between brains of two individuals (Exp.1)], a general underlying psychophysical principle might be revealed as quantum coherence between the overlapping electromagnetic fields of the two brains. This possible type of highly synchronous phenomenon might be revealed by the quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) experiment and the following inter-brain network topology indices such as partial directed coherence (PDC) and phase locking value (PLV) (Santamaria et al., 2020), as well as by the investigation of transferred potentials (Grinberg‐Zylberbaum et al., 1994). Then, an inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol (Exp.2) can be used to assess the causal role of TPJ and cortical desynchronization in autoscopy (AS) or out-of-body experience (OBE). The combination of the results from both experiments with autoscopic phenomenological inquiries, will highlight the extend to which modified states of bodily self-awareness occur and might reveal the principles of cortical synchronization across the cortex for embodiment. Alltogether, the present project will articulate a new theoretical framework starting from different findings and evolving toward a broader conceptual frame.

The final step will be to extrapolate the results into a compound of related theoretical pathways such as the conscious electromagnetic information (CEMI) field theory of consciousness, coherence/resonance general theory of consciousness and the holonomic brain’s theoretical axis including an unconstrained fourier coordinate system and holographic principles.

Experimental Design

NAMSCA Theoretical Map
Figure 1 – Theoretical Map
NAMSCA Global Research Protocol
Figure 2 – Global Research Protocol

Dual EEG Experimental Protocol

NAMSCA Timeline
Figure 3 – Timeline
NAMSCA Faraday's cage illustration
Figure 4 – Faraday’s cage illustration
NAMSCA Dual EEG Experimental Design
Figure 5 – Dual EEG Experimental Design
NAMSCA rTMS Timeline
Figure 6 – rTMS Timeline

The Philosophy of Mind Research

Conclusion : The Non-reductive View of the Mind is independant of main cognitive biases in this study and could be used as a valid paradigmatic axis to interpret neuroscientific results.

Exploring the Relationships Between Contemporary Naïve
Representations of Mind, Cognitive Biases, Conspiracy
Mentality, Post-Modern Beliefs and World Views

Which naïve representations of the mind can stand as a theoretical
axis to direct or interpret cognitive neuroscience experiments ?

Consciousness is mysterious and very abstract in meaning. A general definition of consciousness might be : « a general state of being aware of and responsive to one’s surroundings ». The philosophy of mind can give us an exhaustive overview of the many philosophical stances surrounding consciousness and mental processes. This theoretical ground is elementary to clarify what the researchers are looking for : Is there mental processes or simply correlates of the ongoing mind flow that we call consciousness ? Do we have a strict common identity between the mental and the physical ? Or, is there a huge gap between what cognitive neuroscience can understand and the non reducible qualitative features of conscious phenomena ?

In this particular study, cognitive biases such as conspiracy mentality and espistemic relativism or the cognitive reflection ability were used to clarify to what extend the dimensions of the mind could be subjected to biases. Indeed, the relevant five factors of the mind were called naïve representations of the mind, because of the targeted unexpert and heterogenous population.

With the aim to make sense of the underlying structure of philosophy of mind, the creation of a questionnaire (The Philosophy of Mind Scale) based on the litterature (Heil, 2013) followed up by a principal component analysis were undertaken. Then, correlational analyses and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to grasp the reciprocal or causal patterns between the constructs. Finally, a structural equation modeling part was initiated to show graphically how the dimensions of the mind can be subjected to cognitive biases. In general, two main views of the mind were exempt from cognitive biases or irrational thinking mode : The Strict Neuroscience View of Mind representing the cornerstone of the current epistemology in cognitive neurosciences and also The Non-Reducible View of Mind which relates to a causal dependency of mental states to brain states without any reductionism or elimination of the qualitative aspect of mental states. Indeed, these two theoretical approaches can potentially be used to direct and (or) interpret cognitive neuroscience experiments without being afraid to fall into a biased or irrational judgment whether solid scientific proofs are given.


Contenu scientifique

  1. Ken Mauron (2020), How to avoid cognitive biases and conspiracy drifts in philosophy of mind and consciousness research ?
    Poster scientifique "Philosophy of mind" (PDF)
  2. Ken Mauron (2020), Exploring the Relationships Between Contemporary Naïve Representations of Mind, Cognitive Biases, Conspiracy Mentality, Post-Modern Beliefs and World Views
    Thèse de Master en neurosciences cognitives (PDF)
    Thèse de Master en neurosciences cognitives (Academia)
  3. Ken Mauron (2021), NAMSCA : Neurophysiological Aspects of Modified States of Consciousness and Awareness.
    Scientific Proposal for Consciousness Research (PDF)